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Biology is the study of the living world. All living things share certain common properties: They are made of cells that contain DNA; they maintain order inside. How Living Things Obtain Matter and Energy for Gro. The biggest difference between plants and animals is how they get the matter and energy th In Biology . Your hands-on study guide to the inner world of the cell Need to get a handle on molecular and cell biology? Thiseasy-to-understand guide explains the.
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All living things share certain common properties: They are made of cells that contain DNA; they maintain order inside their cells and bodies; they regulate their systems; they respond to signals in the environment; they transfer energy between themselves and their environment; they grow and develop; they reproduce; they have traits that have evolved over time.
The study of biology includes the study of human beings. The biological functions of humans are similar to those of many other animals. Like other animals, humans need to acquire oxygen and energy in order to survive.
Biology For Dummies, 3rd Edition
Here is a brief summary of key human biological concepts:. Organisms are made of organ systems, which are made of organs, which are made of tissues, which are made of cells, which are made of molecules, which are made of atoms.
Homeostasis is the balance, or equilibrium, of the body. The heart is a muscular pump. Contractions by the heart push blood through the circulatory system.
Within the circulatory system, blood travels in arteries to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and returns through veins to carry carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.
Blood also carries nutrients from the digestive system to the cells of the body and removes wastes from the cells. Exchange of the respiratory gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide, occurs in the lungs.
Digestion involves the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food molecules into their smallest subunits. Digestion begins in the mouth and continues in the stomach and small intestine. Absorption of nutrients in the digestive system occurs through the cells of the small intestine. Glands are organs in the endocrine system that secrete hormones.
Hormones are chemical messengers that can alter the behavior of target cells. The nervous system consists of two main systems, the central nervous system CNS and the peripheral nervous system.
The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord and sends out instructions. The peripheral nervous system contains the nerves that send the messages from the CNS to the rest of the body. The muscular and skeletal systems work together to allow movement.
The muscles contain fibers that can contract, while the skeleton provides support and structures for muscles to pull against. Charles Darwin concluded that biological evolution occurs as a result of natural selection, which is the theory that in any given generation, some individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce than others.
In order for natural selection to occur in a population, several conditions must be met:. Individuals in the population must produce more offspring than can survive.
Human beings are somewhat unique among living things in that we can make conscious choices about how many offspring we have. Life Life is a phenomenon existing as far as we know only on Earth.
All of the living things on Earth are collectively known as organisms. There are a range of functions that are essential for something to be considered an organism. These include movement, respiration, sensitivity, growth, reproduction, the release of wastes and the consumption of food. Life has evolved into an incredible array of shapes and forms. Humans belong to the most advanced group of organisms, the animals.
Other higher-level organisms include plants and fungi. More primitive life forms include microscopic groups such as bacteria and archaea. Viruses are an unusual group because they are unable to reproduce without the use of a host cell. As such, viruses are classed by some biologists to be living and by others to be not.
Cells All living things are built from microscopic structures called cells.
One cell has the potential to sustain life and is the simplest structure capable of doing so. Although life evolved into multi-cellular organisms a long time ago, the majority of life on Earth still remains as single-celled organisms.
Bacteria, archaea, protists , and many fungi have only one cell and are able to survive and reproduce in a huge array of ways that puts plants and animals to shame. Cells are typically divided into two main categories: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cells are found only in microscopic organisms such as bacteria and archaea. Eukaryotic cells are found in more advanced organisms such as animals, plants, and fungi.
Organelles perform specific functions such as photosynthesis and protein production. The cells from one organism to the next always varies but they do often have many similarities.
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Almost all cells contain DNA, are surrounded by a membrane, and perform similar functions such as respiration and the production of proteins. Genes Genes are the basic unit for heredity. When organisms reproduce, the information from genes is passed from parent to offspring. The genes that are passed from parent to offspring then provide the information to cells to keep the new organism alive. Evolution The theory of evolution by natural selection gives by far the best explanation for the huge diversity of species on Earth.There are a range of functions that are essential for something to be considered an organism.
Chapter 6: Living things have the ability to acquire and transform energy.
Introduction to Biology
Studying living things, called organisms, takes us all around the world, from the most productive tropical rain forests to the hostile lands of Antarctica or the deepest oceanic basins. DNA Synthesis: The parent and daughter cells are both diploid, which means they have a double set of chromosomes.
All of the living things on Earth are collectively known as organisms. Humans belong to the most advanced group of organisms, the animals.
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