Book Source: Digital Library of India Item profporwacipog.tk: Gombrich profporwacipog.tkpe: application/pdf profporwacipog.tk E. H. Gombrich, "The Literature of Art" [Die Kunstliteratur, ]: Authorized .. Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art (Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums, ) . ART and the MIND – Ernst H. GOMBRICH: Mit dem Steckenpferd unterwegs. Editorial Assistance by Georg Vasold: Kunstgeschichte in tristen Jahren. Ernst H.
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the original German exactly forty years ago as the chapter on "Kunstliteratur" in the Professor Gombrich (while on summer holiday in the Austrian Alps!) and .. Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art (Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums, ). Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE (30 March – 3 November ) was an Austrian-born art . Cover of: Die Geschichte der Kunst. Cover image: Drawing, pencil, by Sybille Moser-Ernst, Sir Ernst Gombrich listening to CosÞ van Hans Belting: Kunstgeschichte als Kulturwissenschaft?.
The most valuable part consists of the accounts of German artists and of those artists whom Sandrart himself encountered on his many travels. Among the former belongs the account of "Mathaus Grtinewald," which apparently rests upon a confusion with Mathis Gotthart Nithart and which deprived this master of his proper name.
Among the latter belong several lively portraits from the German artists' colony in Rome, where Sandrart was also in touch with Claude Lorrain and Elsheimer. Of Spanish art literature—in addition to Guevara, the 16th- century editor of Pliny who also attests to Hieronymus Bosch's fame in Spain—Francisco Pacheco's Ait of Painting Arte de la pinlura, should, above all, be mentioned. In it, besides the common property of European art theory, we also find an ac- count of Velazquez, the author's son-in-law.
Palomino's Museum of Painting El museo pictorico, already belongs to the 18th century. Sixteenth-century England is represented only by a fragmen- tary Lomazzo translation and Nicholas Hillyard's manuscript on the technique of miniature painting both The 17th cen- tury, too, produced little that was original, Aglionby's Painting Illustrated being based primarily on Vasari.
By contrast, France in the 17th century developed a comprehensive art litera- ture intimately connected to the newly founded Academy.
Ro- land Freart de Chambray breathes the spirit of Cartesian rationalism in his work on the idea of perfection in painting as demonstrated by the principles of art Idee de la perfection de la peinture demonstree par ses principes. Equally charac- teristic are the academic lectures of Felibien Conferences; deliv- ered , whose collected writings on art embrace six volumes.
Though a convinced classicist, Felibien yet seeks to do justice to the works of the French Middle Ages. One of the most-read summaries of the teachings of academic classicism is Dufresnoy's didactic poem on painting De arte graphica, , often trans- lated and published with commentaries. Among artists' writings from this milieu, Le Brun's lecture on the portrayal of the affects is noteworthy.
It treats human passions and their charac- teristic facial expressions in Cartesian terms and typifies the prin- ciples of academic history painting. Le Brun also studied physi- ognomies, with its comparison between human beings and animals. The first opposition to academic dogmas arose during the same period.
1909 - 2001
In the battle between Poussinistes and Rubenistes, the writer on art, Roger de Piles, stood by the latter. In his dialogue on color Dialogue sur le coloris, he takes sides with Art Documentation, Spring 7 the Venetians against the Roman school, as Dolce had previously done see above. His interest in Dutch artists and in the genre of landscape, so little esteemed by the academicians, marks him as the prophet of a new age.
In the 18th century it was above all the collectors who determined the shape of art literature, and their standards of value were less rigorous than those of the philoso- phers of art.
The influence of empiricist philosophy, with its opposition to platonic Idealism, also made itself felt, especially in England. Among French rationalists and skeptics, the Abbe del Bos, who subjects the ideals of the Academy to a sharp critique, is preeminent; also Denis Diderot, whose famous accounts of the Paris Salons printed in introduced the age of journalistic art criticism. His advocacy of the bourgeois-moralistic paintings of Greuze show him as a pioneer and champion of the ideals of the middle class.
The sculptor Falconet even took it upon himself to criticize famous antiquities; Goethe, in his youthful work "Von Falconet unci Uber Falconet," followed con- sciously in his footsteps.
Of still greater significance on a theoretical level is the art literature of 18th-century England. To be sure, the popular writ- ings of Jonathan Richardson father and son still show the influ- ence of academic art theory, albeit softened by the tolerance of the traveler and collector. But in Hogarth's writing on art, The Analysis of Beauty , a position of opposition to the academic tradition is openly assumed.
Although Hogarth borrowed his theory of a "line of beauty" from Lomazzo see above , his posi- tion is yet, in spite of its naivete, entirely psychologico-empirical. Reynolds, too, whose academic lectures Discourses, pay tribute to inherited art theory, makes many observations that transcend this position.
But above all, the magnum opus of anti- metaphysical aesthetics must be mentioned here, Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the origin of our ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful , which also stimulated Kant. The English aesthetic, based on a purely sensual, indeed asso- ciationist foundation, culminated in the debates on the essence of the "picturesque," especially in garden design, in which Richard Payne Knight represents the standpoint that the "pictur- esque" is that which reminds us of paintings previously seen.
Perhaps only in the context of this conscious opposition to dogma can we understand how, precisely in England, the auton- omous validity of the Gothic and even the Chinese style was first recognized. Pioneer and champion of the former was the anti- quary Horace Walpole , the author of the first ro- mance of chivalry and ghost story; the popularizer of the latter, especially Chinese garden design, was William Chambers — In German art literature the heritage of academic classicism is more powerfully in evidence.
To be sure, a Hagedorn may as- sume a relaxed position vis-a-vis dogma comparable to that of Richardson in England; but soon German art literature stood under the spell of the towering figure of Winckelmann, whose Roman circle took the art theories of Bellori see above even more seriously, perhaps, than the 17th century had done. With Lessing's Laokdon , motifs from English art literature, above all the rational investigation of art as semiotics [Zeichengebung], find their way into German art criticism, to be reshaped subsequently by Herder and the young Goethe into the sentimentalism of the "Sturm und Drang.
The many reference works and dictionaries of the 18th cen- tury were intended for the use of amateurs; their predecessors may be found in the outstanding alphabetical glossaries of artis- tic expressions by Baldinucci and Felibien Sulzer's General Theory of Fine Arts Allgemeine Theorie der schbnen Kiinste, , sharply criticized by Goethe, and the dictionary of Watelet and Levesque, are characteristic products of this milieu. Johann Rudolf Ftissli's Universal Dictionary of Artists Allgemeines Kunstler- lexikon, , the first of its kind, and Milizia's Dictionary of Fine Arts Dizionario delle belle arti del disegno, also belong here.
With this we have reached the period in which the genuinely scholarly and scientific study of art [Kunstwissenschaft] took root. It is adumbrated by the great compendia and historical surveys of the late 18th century.
Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums, forms the great example of an historical view of art. Simultaneously, there appeared catalogues such as Bartsch's Le Peintre-Graveur These are books which possess practical as well as historical interest. Beginning with the 19th century we must distinguish between writings on art addressed to contemporary issues and scholarly literature.
The former remain bound up with the various tend- encies in contemporary art and group themselves accordingly. Thus Wilhelm Wackenroder's Sentimental Effusions of an Art- Loving Monk Herzensergiessungen eines kunstliebenden Kloster- bruders, represents the enthusiastic standpoint of the Naza- renes, against which Goethe's friend Heinrich Meyer hurled the Weimar circle's ban of excommunication with his essay Neo-German Religous-Patriotic Art Neu-Deutsche religids-patriotische Kunst, In England the Romantic enthusiasm for the Middle Ages was first expressed in neo-Gothic architecture, defended in the works of the architect A.
Pugin The most eloquent and influential champion and pioneer of this movement arose in John Ruskin, friend of the Pre-Raphaelites and passionate critic of the machine age, who spoke up for a return of art to living craftmanship and piety. The revival of "applied art" by William Morris, which influenced the principles of the German Werk- bund and Bauhaus, would be unthinkable without Ruskin. The fundamental ideas of German Idealism, of Hans von Marees and Adolf Hildebrand, should be sought in the works of Konrad Fiedler on the philosophy of art.
Meanwhile, the idealist interpretation of art faced a stronger opponent in France. While Baudelaire seeks in his essays to do justice to the artistic temperament of Delacroix and the contem- porary art of Daumier or Constantin Guys, this revaluation of all values reveals itself also in the judgment of the past: writers such as Eduard Koloff, W.
Burger-Thore, and Eugene Fromentin pro- mote the "realistic" masters, above all Rembrandt and Vermeer, Frans Hals, and Velazquez, while the brothers Edmond and Jules de Goncourt rehabilitate the 18th century, contemptuously dis- missed by the classicists, and prepare the theoretical basis for Impressionism.
E. H. Gombrich
This artistic tendency finds its spokesman in Emile Zola, who champions Manet and his friend Cezanne in his writings on the Salon , and in J. Huysmans, who pre- pares the way for the younger generation in Hart moderne The battle over modern art, which began around the turn of the century, released a flood of art literature, pro and con. Archi- tects addressed the public on their own behalf, pleading not only for a new style of architecture but also for a new style of life: thus Otto Wagner's Modern Architecture Moderne Architektur, , H.
Painters, too, took up the pen. Whistler's work, The Gentle Art of Making Enemies , struck the note of paradoxical and consciously provoca- 8 Art Documentation, Spring tive epigram, variously imitated.
Among German writings on art, those of Max Liebermann stand at the forefront. The Symbolist movement, at the turn of the century, stressed the unity of all arts and thus brought poets into contact with visual artists. By contrast, Bernard Berenson subjected this development to a sharp critique from the standpoint of a "humanistic" theory of art and values in Aesthetics and History And in The Lost Center Verlust der Mitte, , Hans Sedlmayr sought to interpret and dismiss the visual arts of the present day as a "symbol" or "symptom" from the viewpoint of a "geistesgeschichtliche Kunstwissenschaft" of a Hegelian stamp.
To what extent, in the 20th century, all questions of art become political, and how, in the process, the unqualified press to partici- pate in the literature of art, requires no commentary. By contrast, one realm of art literature must be touched upon which only came to full flowering in this century: writings on art education. In Germany it is, above all, Alfred Lichtwark who, in Hamburg, tirelessly propagated the ideas of the English applied artists, especially those of William Morris, and who bestowed a wholly new attention upon the "art" of the untrained and of children.
The catch phrase "art for the people" could be realized as cheaper reproductive techniques and larger editions assured the wider distribution of illustrated works. The revolutionary and levelling influence of new reproduction techniques, with their enlargements, details, comparisons, and lighting effects, was perceived above all by Andre Malraux.
In the three volumes of his Psychology of Art Psychologie de I'art; from , he sought to trace the consequences of this revaluation of our artistic heritage for artists, critics, and historians. Since this essay was first published, three further updated editions of Schlosser have appeared. Kurz saw through the press two more Italian editions , , each with revised and updated bibliographies, and more recently a French edition, again with updated bibliographies, appeared briefly on the market: La lit- erature artistique Paris: Flammarion, This French edition is deeply flawed see this translator's review in the Burlington Magazine [October ]: and has already gone out of print.
Therefore, the Italian edition remains both the most reliable and, thanks to a paperback reprint , also the most accessible edition. But for the most up-to-date bibliogra- phies, readers must nonetheless be directed with a caveat to the fugitive French edition. While the original German edition of has recently been reprinted, Schlosser still remains unavail- able in English although, as Professor Gombrich has remarked in correspondence, "many have talked about it!
Professor Gombrich has suggested that readers of this translation might find a selective list of them useful. The several indispensable anthologies compiled by the late E. In accordance with Professor Gombrich's broad chronological divisions, we list below some of the more important sources available in translation—in these and other anthologies, or in their entirety.
Antiquity Most classical authors, including all the writers mentioned in the text, are available in English translation, with the original Greek or Latin on facing pages, in the many volumes of the Loeb Classical Library, published by the Harvard University Press.
Pollitt, offer translations of the major literary sources for the history of ancient art: The Art of Greece, B. The following may also be helpful: Pausanias. Pausanias's Description of Greece. Translated, with commentary by J. London: Macmillan, Translated, with an introduction by Peter Levi.
New York: Penguin Books, Pliny the Elder.
Translated by K. Jex-Blake, with commentary and historical introduction by E. Chicago: Ares, First published Vitruvius Pollio. Vilruvius, the Ten Book on Architecture. Translated by Morris Hicky Morgan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, New York: Dover Books, Three volumes in Prentice-Hall's series of Sources and Documents offer further material in translation: Cyril Mango, ed.
The following may also be helpful: Cennini, Cennino. The Craftsmans Handbook. Translated by David V.
New Haven: Yale University Press, New York: Dover, Suger, Abbot of Saint Denis. Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of St. Denis and its Art Treasures. Edited, translated, and annotated by Erwin Panofsky. Princeton: Princeton University Press, The Various Arts.
Translated with introduction by C. London: Nelson, Oxford: Clar- endon Press, Holt, A Documentary History of Art, vol. Excerpts from further Renais- sance writers mentioned in the text may be found in three vol- umes in Prentice-Hall's series of Sources and Documents: Creighton Gilbert, ed. The following may also be helpful: Alberti, Leon Battista.
The Story Of Art
On Painting. Translated by Cecil Grayson; introduction by Martin Kemp. New York: Penguin, Edited, translated, introduction, and notes by Cecil Grayson. London: Phaidon, Translated by John Rykwert et al. Cambridge: MIT Press, Cellini, Benvenuto.
The Autobiography of Bmvenuto Cellini. Trans- lated, with an introduction by George Bull. Baltimore: Pen- guin Books, Condivi, Ascanio. The Life of Michelangelo. Translated by Alice Sedgwick Wohl. Edited by Hellmut Wohl. Selected and translated, with an introduction by George Bull.
World's Classics. New York: Oxford University Press, Dolce, Lodovico. Edited and translated by Mark Roskill. Durer, Albrecht. Translated, with a commentary by Walter L. New York: Abaris Books, Filarete's Treatise on Architecture. Translated, with an intro- duction and notes by John R: Spencer.
Ghiberti, Lorenzo. Unpublished translation available from the Courtauld Institute. Hollanda, Francisco de. Four Dialogues on Painting. Translated by Aubrey F.
London: Oxford University Press, Westport, Conn. The Hieroglyphics of Horapollo. Translated by George Boas. Bollingen Series. New York: Pantheon Books, Leonardo da Vinci. Treatise on Painting [Codex Urbinas Latinus ]. Translated and annotated by A. Philip McMahon.
Lomazzo, Giovanni Paolo. Translated by Richard Hay- docke. Reprint of the ed. Westmead Engl : Gregg Inter- national, Manetti, Antonio. The Life of Brunelleschi. Introduction, notes, and critical text by Howard Saalman. Translated by Catherine Enggass. University Park, Penn. Michiel, Marcantonio. Translated by Paolo Mussi. Edited by George C. London: Bell, New York: Blom, Palladio, Andrea. The Four Books of Architecture. Reprint of the Isaac Ware translation , with a new introduction by Adolf K.
Ripa, Cesare. Baroque and Rococo Pictorial Imagery. The —60 Hertel edition of Ripa's "Iconologia. Scamozzi, Vincenzo. The Mirror of Architecture. London: Printed for W. Fisher and E. Hurlock, Serlio, Sebastiano. Facsimile of the ed. English translation of Books Introduction by A. New York: Arno, Introduction by James Ackerman.
Text by Myra Nan Rosenfeld. New York: Architectural History Foun- dation, Vasari, Giorgio. Translated by Gaston du C. Translated by George Bull. I, The Middle Ages and the Renaissance, and vol. Three volumes in Prentice-Hall's series of Sources and Doc- uments offer further sources in translation: Wolfgang Stechow, ed.
The following may also be helpful: Aglionby, William. Painting Illustrated in Three Diallogues. Portland, Ore. Baldinucci, Filippo. The Life of Bernini.
Bellori, Giovanni Pietro. Burke, Edmund. Edited, with an introduction by James T. Oxford: Blackwell, Chambers, William. Reprint of the 3rd ed. Du Fresnoy, Charles Alphonse.
The story of art.
De arte graphica; The Art of Paint- ing. London: Printed by J. Heptinstall for W. Rogers, Felibien, Andre. Seven Conferences. London: Printed for T. Cooper, Freart, Roland, sieur de Chambray. London: Herringman, Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Goethe on Art. Selected, edited and translated by John Gage. Berkeley: University of Califor- nia Press, Hillyard, Nicholas. Nicholas Hilliard's Art of Limning. Transcription by Arthur F.
Commentary and apparatus by Linda Bradley Salamon. Foreword by John Pope-Hennessy. Boston: Northeastern University Press, Hogarth, William.
The Analysis of Beauty. New York: Garland, Knight, Richard Payne. Reprint of the 4th ed. Westmead Engl. Art Documentation, Spring 11 Lairesse, Gerard de. The Art of Painting, in All its Branches.
Translated by John Frederick Fritsch. London: Printed for the author, Lanzi, Luigi. The History of Painting in Italy. London: Simpkin and Marshall, Google Scholar Euripides: , E. Craik ed. Google Scholar Euripides: , S. Barrow ed.
Google Scholar Foucault, M. Paris: Gallimard. New York: Random House. Google Scholar Frazer, J. Douglas ed. London: Rainbird. Google Scholar Freud, S. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Google Scholar Gelernter, M. Manchester: University Press.
Google Scholar Girard, R. Paris: Grasset. Dumouchel ed. Stanford: University Press, — Google Scholar Gombrich, E. London: Phaidon Press. London: Paidon Press. Google Scholar Gombrich, E, J.
Hochberg and M. Black: , Art, Perception and Reality. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. Google Scholar Goodman, N. London: Oxford University Press.
Google Scholar Hegel, G. Frankfurt a. Google Scholar Homer: , A. Garvie ed. Cambridge, MA: University Press. Google Scholar Honour, H.
Fleming: , A World History of Art. Basingstoke: MacMillan. Google Scholar Kaptein R. Kampen: Kok Agora. Google Scholar Kula, W. Princeton: University Press.
Google Scholar Kultermann, U.
Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Paris: Plon. Ethnologia Scandinavia Google Scholar Lovejoy, A. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press.
Google Scholar Lucas, D. In Poetics. Google Scholar Malinowski, B. Cleveland: Meridan Books. London: Rupert Hart-Davis. Google Scholar Marcuse, H. Google Scholar Mathijs, E. Mosselmans: , Van herbelevende waarheid naar afgebeelde schoonheid: de versluiering van het oorspronkelijk geweld bij Plato en Aristoteles. Pijnenburg ed. Wageningen: Landbouwuniversiteit. Mosselmans: , Van Daedalus tot Pygmalion: kunst en mimesis in het antropometrische stadium.
Tijdschrift voor Filosofie Aerts, E. Mathijs and B. Mosselmans eds. Dordrecht-New York: Kluwer. Google Scholar Mertens, J. Google Scholar Michel, P. Paris, Les Belles Lettres. Google Scholar Mirowski, P. Cambridge: University Press. Google Scholar Morris, S. De Uil Van Minerva Google Scholar Mosselmans, B.
Mathijs: b, Natuurlijke ongelijkheid en hierarchische differentiatie in de antropometrische wetenschappen van Aristoteles. Hoenen ed. Nijmegen: KUN. Mathijs: in press, Science and Philosophy in the Anthropometric Stage. Proceedings of the Congress of History of Science. Google Scholar Murray, G.The increasing flood of guidebooks for art lovers in the Italian Renaissance testifies to the same public participation in questions of taste.
To recite them individually is impossible; as a curiosity, Boschini's rhyming Picturesque Sea-Chart of Venice Carta del navegar pitoresco, , composed in the Venetian dialect, may be mentioned. Was Gombrich in the academic mould? He then worked as a Research Assistant and collaborator with the museum curator and Freudian analyst Ernst Kris.
Concerning the Spiritual in Art. Judson ed. Transcription by Arthur F. Mosselmans: , Van herbelevende waarheid naar afgebeelde schoonheid: de versluiering van het oorspronkelijk geweld bij Plato en Aristoteles. Google Scholar Euripides: , E.
The former remain bound up with the various tend- encies in contemporary art and group themselves accordingly.
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